This page is maintained by Valentin Goranko. Last update: 20/05/2019, 10.00


Philosophical Logic (March 25-June 3, 2019)

Lecturer: Valentin Goranko

Teaching assistant: Karl Nygren

Tentative course plan and schedule (changes are likely to occur):

Week / lecture Date Main Topics Recommended readings

Supplementary readings

Slides Exercises and selected solutions

Assignments and deadlines

Lecture 1 25/03

Introduction to the course.

Brief history and philosophical origins of logic. Logical ideas in the antiquity: Aristotle, the Stoic and Megarian schools. An overview of the spectrum of philosophical logics.

The range of philosophical logics.

Modes of truth, modalities and a spectrum of modal logics. Necessary and possible truths. Alethic modal logics.

Possible worlds semantics: informal introduction.

 

 

R. Ballarin, Modern Origins of Modal Logic, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

James Garson, Modal Logic, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

(added) Richard Zach, Boxes and Diamonds, Open Logic Project, Chapter 1.

Eric Pacuit, Lecture notes on modal Logic, Sect.1, 2

Johan van Benthem, "Modal Logic for Open Minds", Chapters 1. 2

Sten Lindström & Krister Segerberg, Modal Logic and Philosophy, chapter in: P. Blackburn & J. van Benthem (eds.), Handbook of Modal Logic. Elsevier (2007), Section 1 (Alletic modal logic): subsection 1.1.

For more practicing and fun with possible worlds semantics, go to this Modal Logic Playground

 

Gary Hardegree, Introduction to Modal Logic, Ch.1,3,4

Ed Zalta, Basic Concepts of Modal Logic, Lecture notes, CSLI, Stanford University, Chapters 1, 2, 3(§1-§3)

Introductions to Part III and chapters 12-18 of the 02/02/2010 draft of the book "Modal Logic for Open Minds" by Johan van Benthem here).

P. Blackburn and J. van Benthem, Modal Logic: a Semantic perspective, Sections 1,2. Chapter in Handbook of Modal Logic. Elsevier (2007)(available electronically from the university library)

Posted on Athena

Introduction to the course

Introduction to Modal Logics: Part I

Posted on Athena

 

Lecture 2

01/04

Possible worlds semantics: technical introduction. Truth and validity of modal formulae.

Standard translation of modal formulae to first-order logic.

Some important modal principles and systems of modal logic.

Frame validity of modal formulae. Frame definability and correspondence.

 

 

(added) Richard Zach, Boxes and Diamonds, Open Logic Project, Chapter 2.

Eric Pacuit, Lecture notes on modal Logic, Sections 3,4

James Garson, Modal Logic, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Johan van Benthem, "Modal Logic for Open Minds", Chapter 2

Stefan Wölfl, Introduction to Modal Logics, Lecture notes (July 22, 2015), Sections 1, 2.1-2.6, 3.1,3.2, 3.6.

 

 

Ed Zalta, Basic Concepts of Modal Logic, Lecture notes, CSLI, Stanford University, Ch. 3,4,5.

Gary Hardegree, Introduction to Modal Logic, Ch.5

Saul A. Kripke, Semantical Analysis of Modal Logic I. Normal Modal Propositional Calculi, Zeitschrift fur mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 9 (5‐6):67-96 (1963)

Lloyd Humberstone, Philosophical Applications of Modal Logic, College Publications, 2015. (A few copies are available at the SU library), Ch. 1.3, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3

 

Posted on Athena:

Introduction to Modal Logics: Lectures 1 and 2.

 

Posted on Athena

 
Lecture 3 03/04

Semantic and deductive approaches to modal logics.

Introduction to modal deductive systems.

Axiomatic systems and semantic tableaux for modal logics.

Bisimulations and bisimulation invariance of modal formulae

(updated)

On modal deductive systems:

Richard Zach, Boxes and Diamonds, Open Logic Project, Chapters 3, 6.

Sara Negri, Proof theory for modal logic, Philosophy Compass, vol. 6, 2011, pp. 523-538. Sections 1-4.

Rajeev Goré, Tableau Methods for Modal and Temporal Logics, in: Handbook of Tableau Methods pp 297-396. Sections 1-4.6

On bisimulations:

P. Blackburn and J. van Benthem, Modal Logic: a Semantic perspective, Sections 1,2. Chapter in Handbook of Modal Logic. Elsevier (2007)(available electronically from the university library)

Stefan Wölfl, Introduction to Modal Logics, Lecture notes (July 22, 2015), Section 2.7.

Johan van Benthem, "Modal Logic for Open Minds", Sections 3.1-3.4

 

Handbook of Modal Logic. Elsevier (2007)(available electronically from the university library), Chapters: P. Blackburn and J. van Benthem, Modal Logic: a Semantic perspective, and

Melvin Fitting, Modal Proof Theory, Sections 1-7 (selectively).

Melvin Fitting, Prefixed Tableaus and Nested Sequents, Annals of Pure and Applied Logic, vol. 163 (2012), pp. 291–313. Sections 4-7

Rajeev Goré, Tableau Methods for Modal and Temporal Logics, in: Handbook of Tableau Methods pp 297-396. Section 4.14

Dag Prawitz, Natural Deduction: A Proof-Theoretical Study, 1965. Chapter VI. (Re-published by Dover Publications, 2006. Available from SU Frescatibiblioteket and Matematiska biblioteket)

Stefan Wölfl, Introduction to Modal Logics, Lecture notes (July 22, 2015), Chapter 5.

Valentin Goranko and Martin Otto, Model theory of Modal Logic, chapter in: Handbook of Modal Logic. Elsevier (2007) (available electronically from the university library), Section 2.

Posted on Athena:

Introduction to modal deductive systems. Axiomatic systems and semantic tableaux for modal logics.

Bisimulations and bisimulation invariance of modal formulae

 

Posted on Athena Assignment 1 posted on Athena
Lecture 4

08/04

 

Reasoning about knowledge. Single-agent epistemic modal logics.

Some paradoxes of knowledge and knowability.

Introduction to multi-agent epistemic reasoning and logics. Individual, group, distributed, and common knowledge.

 

R. Fagin, J. Halpern, Y. Moses, M. Vardi, Reasoning About Knowledge, MIT Press, 1995. Chapters 1,2; pages 1-45

Chapter 12 of the book "Modal Logic for Open Minds" by Johan van Benthem (available from the SU library)

Chapter on Epistemic Logic from the book "Dynamic Epistemic Logic" by H. van Ditmarcsh, W. van der Hoek and B. Kooi, Ch 2.1, 2.2

Roy Sorensen, Epistemic Paradoxes, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

 

V. Hendricks and J. Symons, Epistemic Logic, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Section 1

Paul Gochet and Pascal Gribomont

Rod Girle, Modal Logics and Philosophy, McGill-Queen's University Press, 2nd ed., 2009, Ch.12, Epistemic logic, pp. 178-199 (available from the SU library)

B. Brogaard and J. Salerno, Fitch's Paradox of Knowability, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

 

Posted on Athena:

Introduction to single-agent epistemic modal logics.

Introduction to multi-agent epistemic reasoning and logics. Part I.

 

Posted on Athena:

Exercises and selected answers on single-agent epistemic logic

Exercises and selected answers on multi-agent epistemic logic, Part I.

 

 

  18/04          

Submission deadline for Assignment 1: 13.00 on April 18

Lecture 5 24/04

Multi-agent epistemic models and formal Hintikka-Kripke semantics for multi-agent epistemic logics.

Modelling, formalising and solving some epistemic puzzles and problems.

Deduction in multi-agent epistemic logics (briefly)

 

 

J. van Benthem, H. van Ditmarsch, J. van Eijck, J. Jaspars, Logic in Action, Ch. 5. Knowledge and Information Flow, Open Course Project, University of Amsterdam

Chapter on Epistemic Logic from the book "Dynamic Epistemic Logic" by H. van Ditmarcsh, W. van der Hoek and B. Kooi, Ch 2.3

Hans van Ditmarsch Joseph Y. Halpern Wiebe van der Hoek Barteld Kooi, An Introduction to Logics of Knowledge and Belief, Ch. 1 in Handbook of Epistemic logic, College Publications, 2015. pp. 1-50

Eric Pacuit. Dynamic Epistemic Logic I: Modelling Knowledge and Belief. Philosophy Compass, 8:9, pgs. 798 - 814, 2013. Sections 1,2,4.

 

V. Hendricks and J. Symons, Epistemic Logic, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Nick Bezhanishvili and Wiebe van der Hoek, Structures for Epistemic Logic, in: Johan van Benthem on Logic and Information Dynamics, Springer, 2014, pp 339-381.

Chapter on Epistemic logic: knowledge and belief from the book Modalities and Multimodalities by W. Carnielli and C. Pizzi

 

 

Posted on Athena:

Introduction to multi-agent epistemic reasoning and logics (complete)

 

Introduction to dynamic epistemic logic, Part I.

Posted on Athena:

Exercises and selected answers on multi-agent epistemic logic (full)

 

 

Lecture 6 29/04

Introduction to dynamic epistemic logic. Epistemic actions and epistemic model updates.

Reasoning about beliefs and doxastic modal logics.

 

 

 

 

On dynamic epistemic logics:

Playing Cards with Hintikka - An Introduction to Dynamic Epistemic Logic, by H. van Ditmarcsh, W. van der Hoek and B. Kooi

Eric Pacuit. Dynamic Epistemic Logic II: Logics of Information Change. Philosophy Compass, 8:9, pgs. 815 - 833, 2013.

H. van Ditmarcsh, W. van der Hoek and B. Kooi, Dynamic Epistemic Logic, Springer, Synthese Library series, 2008, Ch. 4

On doxastic logics:

Eric Pacuit. Dynamic Epistemic Logic I: Logics of Knowledge and Belief. Philosophy Compass, 8:9, pgs. 798 - 814, 2013. Section 3

A. Baltag, H. P. van Ditmarsch and L.S. Moss. "Epistemic logic and information update". Handbook of Philosophy of Information, in the series Handbook of Philosophy of Science, vol. 8, pp. 361-455, Elsevier, 2008.

Peter Gärdenfors, Belief Revision: An Introduction, pp. 1-20 in: Belief Revision, P. Gärdenfors (ed), Cambridge University Press, 1992

 

On dynamic epistemic logics:

H. van Ditmarcsh, W. van der Hoek and B. Kooi, Dynamic Epistemic Logic, Springer, Synthese Library series, 2008, Ch. 5,6

J. Gerbrandy , The Surprise Examination in Dynamic Epistemic Logic, Synthese, Vol. 155, No. 1 (Mar., 2007), pp. 21-33

On belief revision and doxastic logics:

Johan van Benthem, Dynamic logic for belief revision, J. of Applied Non-Classical Logics, vol.14, No. 2, 2004

H. van Ditmarcsh, W. van der Hoek and B. Kooi, Dynamic Epistemic Logic, Springer, Synthese Library series, 2008, Ch. 2.4 and 3

Hannes Leitgeb and Krister Segerberg, Dynamic Doxastic Logic: Why, How, and Where To?, Synthese Vol. 155, No. 2, (Mar., 2007), pp. 167-190

Sven-Ove Hansson, Logic of Belief Revision, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

 

 

 

 

 

Posted on Athena:

Introduction to dynamic epistemic logic.

Introduction to doxastic modal logics

 

 

Posted on Athena:

Exercises and selected answers on:

-- dynamic epistemic logic.

-- doxastic logics

 

 

Assignment 2 posted (Week 18)

 

 

 

Lecture 7 06/05

 

 

Reasoning about time.Tense and modality. Historical necessity and Diodorus' Master Argument. Variety of temporal models.

Prior's basic temporal logic and some extensions. Linear time temporal logics. The linear time temporal logic LTL.

 

 

Valentin Goranko and Antony Galton, Temporal Logic, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Sections 1-4.

John Burgess: Philosophical Logic, Princeton University Press, 2009. Ch.2: Temporal Logic (2.1-2.6) (available electronically from the SU library)

P. Øhrstrøm and Per Hasle: Temporal Logic: From Ancient Ideas to Artificial Intelligence. Kluwer, 1995. Reprinted by Springer. Chapters 1.2, 2.5, 2.8

 

Peter Øhrstrøm and Per Hasle, Future Contingents, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Yde Venema, Temporal Logic, chapter in: Lou Goble (ed), Blackwell Guide on Philosophical Logic, Blackwell Publishers, 2001

B. Jack Copeland, Arthur Prior, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

J. van Benthem, Tense logic and time. Notre Dame J. Formal Logic 25 (1984), no. 1, 1--16.

Rob Goldblatt, Logics of Time and Computations, CSLI pubblications, 2nd revised and expanded edition, 1992. Chapters 6, 8.

Posted on Athena:

Introduction to temporal logics

Linear time temporal logics. The logic LTL.

Posted on Athena:

Exercises and selected answers on temporal logic - part I

 

Lecture 8 09/5

Derivation of Diodorus' Master Argument. Possible solutions.

Models of branching time and historical necessity. The Ockhamist and the Peircean branching time temporal logics.

Valentin Goranko and Antony Galton, Temporal Logic, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Section 5

Nicholas Denyer: Diodorus Cronus: Modality, The Master Argument and Formalisation. in: Journal of Philosophical Studies, vol. 8, 2009 (Special issue on ``Models of Time'')

Thomas Ploug and Peter Øhrstrøm: Branching time, indeterminism and tense logic Unveiling the Prior–Kripke letters, Synthese (2012) 188:367–379.

P. Øhrstrøm and Per Hasle, Temporal Logic: From Ancient Ideas to Artificial Intelligence. Kluwer, 1995. Reprinted by Springer. Chapters 2.6, 2.8, 2.10

Two articles in Journal of Philosophical Studies, vol. 8, 2009 (Special issue on ``Models of Time''):

-- Alberto Zanardo, Modalities in Temporal Logic;

-- Peter Øhrstrøm, In Defence of the Thin Red Line: A Case for Ockhamism;

Jorge Luis Borges, The Garden of Forking Paths, 1941

A.N. Prior. Time and Determinism, and The Search for the Diodorean Modal System, in: Past, Present and Future. Oxford University Press, 1967 (available electronically from the SU library)

P. Øhrstrøm, Towards a Common Language for the Discussion of Time Based on Prior’s Tense Logic, in: Time and Time Perception, Springer LNAI 6789, pp. 46–57, 2011.

Peter Øhrstrøm: A critical discussion of Prior’s philosophical and tense-logical analysis of the ideas of indeterminism and human freedom, Synthese, 2016

Thomas M ̈uller, Time and Determinism, J Philos Logic (2015) 44:729–740.

 

Posted on Athena

Posted on Athena:

Exercises and selected answers on temporal logic - part II: branching time logics

 
Lecture 9 13/05

Transition semantics for branching time (presented by Antje Rumberg)

Models and logics of agency. `Seeing to it That' (STIT) theory and variations.

 

 

Nuel Belnap & Michael Perloff, Seeing to it that: a canonical form for agentives, Theoria 54 (3):175-199 (1988). A corrected version re-published in: Knowledge Representation and Defeasible Reasoning, (Loui Kyberg, Jr. and Carlson (eds.)), Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1990, pp. 167–90. (available electronically from the SU library)

John Horty and Nuel Belnap, The deliberative stit: a study of action, omission, ability, and obligation. J. of Phil. Logic, vol. 24 (1995), pp. 583 - 644

 

 

Nuel Belnap, Michael Perloff and Ming Xu, Facing the Future: Agents and Choices in Our Indeterminist World. Oxford University Press, 2001. (available electronically from the SU library)

Brian Chellass, Time and Modality in the Logic of Agency, Studia Logica, vol 51. 1992, pp. 485-517

Mark A. Brown: On the logic of ability. J. Phil. Logic 17(1), 1988, pp. 1-26

Jan M. Broersen, Andreas Herzig: Using STIT Theory to Talk About Strategies. in: Models of Strategic Reasoning: Logics, Games and Communities, J. van Benthem, S. Ghosh, R. Verbrugge (eds.), Springer, LNCS/FoLLI series, vol. 8972, 2015, pp. 137-173. Sections 1, 2, 3.1

Posted on Athena

 

Posted on Athena:

Exercises and selected answers on STIT

 

 

Lecture 10

16/05

Karl Nygren:

Normative reasoning and deontic logics.

 

 

 

G. H. von Wright, Deontic Logic, Mind, Vol. 60, No. 237, 1951, pp. 1-15.

Paul McNamara, Deontic Logic, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Pablo Navarro and Jorge Rodríguez, Deontic Logic and Legal Systems, Cambridge University Press, 2014, Chapters 1 (1.3-1.5), 2 (available electronically from the SU library)

John Horty, Agency and Deontic Logic, Oxford UP, 2001, Chapters 3, 4. (available electronically from the SU library)

 

G. H. von Wright, On the Logic of Norms and Actions, in: New Studies in Deontic Logic Norms, Actions, and the Foundations of Ethics, R. Hilpinen (Ed.), Synthese, 1981 (available electronically from the SU library)

D. Føllesdal and R. Hilpinen. “Deontic Logic: An Introduction.” In: Deontic Logic: Introductory And Systematic Readings, R. Hilpinen (Ed), Reidel, Dordrecht, 1971, pp 1–35. (available electronically from the SU library)

Lennart Åqvist, “Deontic Logic.” In Gabbay and Guenthner, 2nd ed. vol. 8(2002), pp147–264. (First edition 1984) (also available electronically from the SU library)

Lennart Åqvist, Combinations of tense and deontic modality: On the Rt approach to temporal logic with historical necessity and conditional obligation, Journal of Applied Logic, vol. 3 (2005), pp.421–460

 

Posted on Athena

Posted on Athena

Submission of Assignment 2 closed.

Assignment 3 posted.

 

Lecture 11 20/5

Introduction to first-order modal logics (FOML): Interactions between modality and quantification.

Formal semantics of FOML. Possibilist and actualist semantics. Models and logics with constant and variable domains. Barcan formulae.

w. Quine, Three Grades of Modal Involvement, in: the Proceedings of the Xlth Intern. Congress of Philosophy, Brussels, 1953, Volume 14 (Available on Athena)

R. Ballarin, Quine on intensional entities: Modality and quantification, truth and satisfaction, Journal of Applied Logic 10 (2012) 238–249. (Available on Athena)

Melvin Fitting and Richard L. Mendelsohn, First-order modal logic, Kluwer, Synthese Library, 1998, Chapter 4, 6-12, (available electronically from the SU library)

Sten Lindström & Krister Segerberg, Modal Logic and Philosophy, chapter in: P. Blackburn & J. van Benthem (eds.), Handbook of Modal Logic. Elsevier (2007), Section 1: Alletic modal logic. (available electronically from the SU library)

George Hughes and Max Cresswell, A new introduction to modal logic, Routledge, 1996. Ch 13, pp 235-255; Ch 15, pp 274-287. (available electronically from the SU library)

James Garson, Modal Logic, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Gary Hardegree, Introduction to Modal Logic, Ch.6,8,9,10

Ted Sider, Logic for Philosophy, OUP, 2010, (available from the SU library), Chapter 9.

M. Cresswell, Rudolf Carnap: Modal Logic, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

R. Carnap, Modalities and Quantification, J. of Symb. Logic, Vol. 11, Nr 2, 1946. (Available on Athena)

Francesco Belardinelli, Counterpart Semantics for Quantified Modal Logic, 2007

Horacio Arló-Costa and Eric Pacuit, First-Order Classical Modal Logic, Studia Logica, 2006, 84(2):171-210

Torben Braüner and Silvio Ghilardi, First-order modal logic, Chapter 9 in: Handbook of Modal Logic, Elsevier, 2007, pp. 549-620 (available electronically from the SU library)

To be posted Posted on Athena

 

Lecture 12 23/5

First-order temporal and epistemic logics

Introduction to intuitionistic logic.

 

Melvin Fitting and Richard L. Mendelsohn, First-order modal logic, Kluwer, Synthese Library, 1998, Chapter 4, 6-12, (available electronically from the SU library)

Joan Moschovakis, Intuitionistic Logic, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Fred Kröger, First-Order Temporal Logic, Chapter in: Temporal Logic of Programs, EATCS Monographs on Theoretical Computer Science, vol. 8, pp 43-53

Erik Palmgren, Semantics of intuitionistic propositional logic, Lecture Notes, 2009

Yaroslav Shramko, Heinrich Wansing: Truth values, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

To be posted To be posted  
Lecture 13 27/5

Introduction to many-valued logics.

Introduction to logics of conditionals and to relevance logics.

Conclusion of the course

Siegfried Gottwald, Many-Valued Logic, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Nicholas J.J. Smith, Many-valued logics, in: Routledge Companion to the Philosophy of Language, 2010, Article 2.6.

H. Arlo-Costa and Paul Egré, The Logic of Conditionals, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Edwin Mares, Relevance Logic, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Robert Stalnaker, A Theory of Conditionals. in: Ifs; W. Harper, R. Stalnaker and G. Pearce (eds), 1968 pp. 41-55

David Lewis, Counterfactuals and Comparative Similarity, Journal of Philosophical Logic 2(4), 1973, pp. 418-446,

Paul Egre and Mikael Cozic, Introduction to the Logic of Conditionals, ESSLLI 2008 Course material

John MacFarlane, Relevance Logic, Lecture notes, 2016

To be posted To be posted

Submission of Assignment 3 (Week 22). Deadline: 09.00 on May 31

Lecture 14 03/06

Spare slot

Return of assignment 3. Final disucssion.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Schedule time-table

Departmental course page with kursplan and course description

Consulting time: by appointment

Lecture notes, handouts, and other reading material

Lecture notes, slides and other reading material will be provided or linked to this page on an ongoing basis.

 

Additional readings:

General on philosophical logic

 

On generic modal logics:

 

On epistemic logics, dynamic epistemic logics, logics of belief and belief revision:

On temporal logics:

 

On logics for ability, actions, agency and STIT:

On deontic logics:

 

On first-order modal ogics:

Exercises

List of exercises will be provided on a weekly basis, usually taken from the lecture notes and handouts. Students are advised to do as many exercises on each topic as they need to master it. Solutions or hints to some selected exercises will be provided and will be discussed in the discussion time before and during the lectures.

Assignments and final grade

There will be 3 mandatory written assignments during the course, each consisting of a set of exercises. The assignments will be provided about 2 weeks before the submission deadline. Students must do these exercises individually and prepare written reports with their solutions.

The assignments will be checked and corrected by the lecturer and the teaching assistant, then returned to the students for feedback, and then returned back to the lecturer. The average of the assignments grades will form the final grade.

Queries

If you have any queries on the information above, talk to me or send me an email.