This page is maintained by Valentin Goranko. Last update: 23/05/2017, 15.40


Modal Logics: A Philosophical Perspective (February-May 2017)

Lecturer: Valentin Goranko

Tentative course plan and schedule (NB recent changes in lectures 7-9):

Week / session Date Main Topics Recommended radings

Supplementary readings

Slides Selected exercises

Assignments and deadlines

08 / 1 21/02

Introduction to the course.

Brief history and philosophical origins of modal logic.

Modes of truth, modalities and a spectrum of modal logics. Necessary and possible truths. Alethic modal logics.

Some important modal principles and systems of modal logic.

 

R. Ballarin, Modern Origins of Modal Logic, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

James Garson, Modal Logic, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Eric Pacuit, Lecture notes on modal Logic, Sect.1, 2

Chapters 1. 2 of the book "Modal Logic for Open Minds" by Johan van Benthem

Sten Lindström & Krister Segerberg, Modal Logic and Philosophy, chapter in: P. Blackburn & J. van Benthem (eds.), Handbook of Modal Logic. Elsevier (2007), Section 1 (Alletic modal logic): subsection 1.1.

Ed Zalta, Basic Concepts of Modal Logic, Lecture notes, CSLI, Stanford University, Ch. 1,2.

Introductions to Part III and chapters 12-18 of the 02/02/2010 draft of the book "Modal Logic for Open Minds" by Johan van Benthem here).

P. Blackburn and J. van Benthem, Modal Logic: a Semantic perspective, Sections 1,2

Posted on Mondo

Posted on Mondo

 
09 / 2 28/02

Basics of the relational (possible worlds) semantics. Truth and validity of modal formulae.

Standard translation of modal formulae to first-order logic.

Frame definability and correspondence.

Semantic and deductive approaches to modal logics.

 

 

Eric Pacuit, Lecture notes on modal Logic, Sections 1,2,4

James Garson, Modal Logic, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Chapter 2 of the book Modal Logic for Open Minds by Johan van Benthem

Ed Zalta, Basic Concepts of Modal Logic, Lecture notes, CSLI, Stanford University, Ch. 3

(NEW): For more practicing and fun with possible worlds semantics, go to this Modal Logic Playground

 

 

Saul A. Kripke, Semantical Analysis of Modal Logic I. Normal Modal Propositional Calculi, Zeitschrift fur mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 9 (5‐6):67-96 (1963)

Handbook of Modal Logic. Elsevier (2007)(available electronically from the university library), Chapters: P. Blackburn and J. van Benthem, Modal Logic: a Semantic perspective and M. Fitting, Modal Proof Theory.

Ed Zalta, Basic Concepts of Modal Logic, Lecture notes, CSLI, Stanford University, Ch. 4,5.

Sara Negri, Proof theory for modal logic

Lloyd Humberstone, Philosophical Applications of Modal Logic, College Publications, 2015. (A few copies are available at the SU library), Ch. 1.3, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3

P. Needham, Making Theorem-Proving in Modal Logic Easy

 

Posted on Mondo

Posted on Mondo

 

10 / 3

07/03

Reasoning about knowledge and beliefs. Single-agent epistemic modal logics.

Some paradoxes of knowledge and knowability.

Introduction to multi-agent epistemic logics.

R. Fagin, J. Halpern, Y. Moses, M. Vardi, Reasoning About Knowledge, MIT Press, 1995. Chapters 1,2; pages 1-45

Chapter 12 of the book "Modal Logic for Open Minds" by Johan van Benthem (available from the SU library)

Roy Sorensen, Epistemic Paradoxes, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

.

V. Hendricks and J. Symons, Epistemic Logic, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Section 1

Rod Girle, Modal Logics and Philosophy, McGill-Queen's University Press, 2nd ed., 2009, Ch.12, Epistemic logic, pp. 178-199 (available from the SU library)

B. Brogaard and J. Salerno, Fitch's Paradox of Knowability, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

 

Posted on Mondo

Posted on Mondo

 

 

12 / 4 21/03

Multi-agent epistemic logics with individual, group, distributed, and common knowledge.

Multi-agent epistemic models and formal Hintikka-Kripke semantics for multi-agent epistemic logics.

Modelling, formalising and solving some epistemic puzzles and problems.

Deduction in multi-agent epistemic logics (briefly)

 

Eric Pacuit. Dynamic Epistemic Logic I: Logics of Knowledge and Belief. Philosophy Compass, 8:9, pgs. 798 - 814, 2013. Sections 1,2.

R. Fagin, J. Halpern, Y. Moses, M. Vardi, Reasoning About Knowledge, MIT Press, 1995. Chapters 1,2; pages 1-45

Chapter on Epistemic Logic from the book "Dynamic Epistemic Logic" by H. van Ditmarcsh, W. van der Hoek and B. Kooi

 

V. Hendricks and J. Symons, Epistemic Logic, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

J. van Benthem, H. van Ditmarsch, J. van Eijck, J. Jaspars, Logic in Action, Ch. 5. Knowledge and Information Flow, Open Course Project, University of Amsterdam

Chapter on Epistemic logic: knowledge and belief from the book Modalities and Multimodalities by W. Carnielli and C. Pizzi

 

Posted on Mondo

Posted on Mondo

Assignment 1 posted on Mondo
14 / 5 04/04

Introduction to dynamic epistemic logics. Public and private announcements and epistemic model updates.

Reasoning about beliefs and doxastic modal logics.

 

Playing Cards with Hintikka - An Introduction to Dynamic Epistemic Logic, by H. van Ditmarcsh, W. van der Hoek and B. Kooi

Eric Pacuit. Dynamic Epistemic Logic I: Logics of Knowledge and Belief. Philosophy Compass, 8:9, pgs. 798 - 814, 2013. Sections 3,4

Eric Pacuit. Dynamic Epistemic Logic II: Logics of Information Change. Philosophy Compass, 8:9, pgs. 815 - 833, 2013.

A. Baltag, H. P. van Ditmarsch and L.S. Moss. "Epistemic logic and information update". Handbook of Philosophy of Information, in the series Handbook of Philosophy of Science, vol. 8, pp. 361-455, Elsevier, 2008.

 

H. van Ditmarcsh, W. van der Hoek and B. Kooi, Dynamic Epistemic Logic, Springer, Synthese Library series, 2008

J. Gerbrandy , The Surprise Examination in Dynamic Epistemic Logic, Synthese, Vol. 155, No. 1 (Mar., 2007), pp. 21-33

Peter Gärdenfors, Belief Revision: An Introduction, pp. 1-20 in: Belief Revision, P. Gärdenfors (ed), Cambridge University Press, 1992

Johan van Benthem, Dynamic logic for belief revision, J. of Applied Non-Classical Logics, vol.14, No. 2, 2004

Hannes Leitgeb and Krister Segerberg, Dynamic Doxastic Logic: Why, How, and Where To?, Synthese Vol. 155, No. 2, (Mar., 2007), pp. 167-190

Sven-Ove Hansson, Logic of Belief Revision, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

For more supplementary readings, see below.

 

Posted on Mondo

 

 

Posted on Mondo

 

 
15 / 6 11/04

Reasoning about time.Tense and modality. Historical necessity and Diodorus' Master Argument. Variety of temporal models.

Prior's basic temporal logic and some extensions. Linear time temporal logics.

 

 

Valentin Goranko and Antony Galton, Temporal Logic, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

John Burgess, Philosophical Logic, Princeton University Press, 2009. Ch.2: Temporal Logic (2.1-2.6) (available electronically from the SU library)

Peter Øhrstrøm and Per Hasle, Future Contingents, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

P. Øhrstrøm and Per Hasle, Temporal Logic: From Ancient Ideas to Artificial Intelligence. Kluwer, 1995. Reprinted by Springer. Chapters 1.2, 2.5, 2.8

 

 

 

Yde Venema, Temporal Logic, chapter in: Lou Goble (ed), Blackwell Guide on Philosophical Logic, Blackwell Publishers, 2001

B. Jack Copeland, Arthur Prior, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

J. van Benthem, Tense logic and time. Notre Dame J. Formal Logic 25 (1984), no. 1, 1--16.

Rob Goldblatt, Logics of Time and Computations, CSLI pubblications, 2nd revised and expanded edition, 1992. Chapters 6, 8.

 

 

Posted on Mondo

 

Posted on Mondo

 

Submission of Assignment 1:

10am on April 10 (closed)

16 / 7 18/04

The linear time temporal logic LTL.

Derivation of Diodorus' Master Argument. Possible solutions.

Models of branching time and historical necessity. The Ockhamist and the Peircean branching time temporal logics.

 

P. Øhrstrøm and Per Hasle, Temporal Logic: From Ancient Ideas to Artificial Intelligence. Kluwer, 1995. Reprinted by Springer. Chapters 2.6, 2.8, 2.10

 

Valentin Goranko and Antony Galton, Temporal Logic, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

 

(New) 3 articles in: Journal of Philosophical Studies, vol. 8, 2009 (Special issue on ``Models of Time''):

-- Alberto Zanardo, Modalities in Temporal Logic;

-- Peter Øhrstrøm, In Defence of the Thin Red Line: A Case for Ockhamism;

-- Nicholas Denyer, Diodorus Cronus: Modality, The Master Argument and Formalisation

 

 

 

 

Jorge Luis Borges, The Garden of Forking Paths, 1941

A.N. Prior. Time and Determinism, and The Search for the Diodorean Modal System, in: Past, Present and Future. Oxford University Press, 1967 (available electronically from the SU library)

P. Øhrstrøm, Towards a Common Language for the Discussion of Time Based on Prior’s Tense Logic, in: Time and Time Perception, Springer LNAI 6789, pp. 46–57, 2011.

Thomas M ̈uller, Time and Determinism, J Philos Logic (2015) 44:729–740.

D. Della Monica, V. Goranko, A. Montanari, G. Sciavicco: Interval Temporal Logics: A Journey, Bull. of the European Association for Theoretical Computer Science (BEATCS), No. 105, October 2011, pp 73-99.

V. Goranko and E. Pacuit, Temporal Aspects of the Dynamics of Knowledge, in: Johan van Benthem on Logic and Information Dynamics, Outstanding Contributions to Logic, Vol. 5, Springer, 2014, pp. 235-266.

For more supplementary readings, see below.

Posted on Mondo

 

Posted on Mondo

 

 
17 / 8 25/04

Models and logics of actions and agency.

`Seeing to it That' (STIT) theory and variations.

Some problems and theories relating actions, knowledge and ability.

Nuel Belnap & Michael Perloff, Seeing to it that: a canonical form for agentives, Theoria 54 (3):175-199 (1988). A corrected version re-published in: Knowledge Representation and Defeasible Reasoning, (Loui Kyberg, Jr. and Carlson (eds.)), Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1990, pp. 167–90. (available electronically from the SU library)

John Horty and Nuel Belnap, The deliberative stit: a study of action, omission, ability, and obligation. J. of Phil. Logic, vol. 24 (1995), pp. 583 - 644

John Horty, Agency and Deontic Logic, Oxford UP, 2001. Chapters 1,2. (available electronically from the SU library)

 

Krister Segerber, The Logic of Action, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

 

Nuel Belnap, Michael Perloff and Ming Xu, Facing the Future: Agents and Choices in Our Indeterminist World. Oxford University Press, 2001. (available electronically from the SU library)

Brian Chellass, Time and Modality in the Logic of Agency, Studia Logica, vol 51. 1992, pp. 485-517

Mark A. Brown: On the logic of ability. J. Phil. Logic 17(1), 1988, pp. 1-26

Ph. Balbiani, A. Herzig, N. Troquard Alternative axiomatics and complexity of deliberative STIT theories, J. Phil Logic, Volume 37, Issue 4, 2008, pp 387-406.

Jan M. Broersen, Andreas Herzig: Using STIT Theory to Talk About Strategies. in: Models of Strategic Reasoning: Logics, Games and Communities, J. van Benthem, S. Ghosh, R. Verbrugge (eds.), Springer, LNCS/FoLLI series, vol. 8972, 2015, pp. 137-173. Sections 1, 2, 3.1

For more supplementary readings, see below.

Posted on Mondo

 

Posted on Mondo

 

Assignment 2 posted on Mondo
18 / 9 02/05

Models and logics of actions and strategic reasoning in multi-agent systems

Thomas Ågotnes, Valentin Goranko, Wojciech Jamroga, Michael Wooldridge: Knowledge and Ability (Sections 11.1-11.5, pages 543-583), chapter in: Handbook of Epistemic Logic, H. van Ditmarsch. J. Halpern, W. van der Hoek and B. Kooi (eds.), College Publications, 2015. Amazon link. (Copy of the chapter provided on Mondo)

Nils Bulling, Valentin Goranko, Wojciech Jamroga: Logics for reasoning about strategic abilities in multi-player games, in: Models of Strategic Reasoning: Logics, Games and Communities, J. van Benthem, S. Ghosh, R. Verbrugge (eds.), Springer, LNCS/FoLLI series, vol. 8972, 2015, pp. 93--136.

Lecture notes on Alternating time Temporal Logics (provided on Mondo), Sections 7.1, 7.2.1-7.2.3

R. Alur, T.A. Henzinger, and O. Kupferman. Alternating-time temporal logic. Journal of the ACM 49:672-713, 2002 Sections 1-3.

Jan M. Broersen, Andreas Herzig: Using STIT Theory to Talk About Strategies. in: Models of Strategic Reasoning: Logics, Games and Communities, J. van Benthem, S. Ghosh, R. Verbrugge (eds.), Springer, LNCS/FoLLI series, vol. 8972, 2015, pp. 137-173. Sections 3.2-3.3

Wiebe van der Hoek and Michael Wooldridge: Cooperation, Knowledge, and Time: Alternating-time Temporal Epistemic Logic and its Applications, Studia Logica, 2003.

V. Goranko and G. van Drimmelen: Decidability and Complete Axiomatization of the Alternating-time Temporal Logic, Theoretical Computer Science, Vol. 353, 1-3, (2006), pp. 93-117.

Thomas Ågotnes and Wojciech Jamroga, Constructive Knowledge: What Agents Can Achieve under Imperfect Information, Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics, 17(4), pp. 423-475.

 

 

Posted on Mondo

Selected exercises from the lecture notes, pp 137-139, Exercises: 61, 64, 66, 67

(Posted on Mondo)

 

 

 
19 / 10 09/05

Normative reasoning and deontic logics. Deontic problems and `paradoxes'.

Paul McNamara, Deontic Logic, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Pablo Navarro and Jorge Rodríguez, Deontic Logic and Legal Systems, Cambridge University Press, 2014, Chapters 1 (1.3-1.5), 2 (available electronically from the SU library)

John Horty, Agency and Deontic Logic, Oxford UP, 2001, Chapters 3, 4. (available electronically from the SU library)

 

G. H. von Wright, Deontic Logic, Mind, Vol. 60, No. 237, 1951, pp. 1-15.

G. H. von Wright, On the Logic of Norms and Actions, in: New Studies in Deontic Logic Norms, Actions, and the Foundations of Ethics, R. Hilpinen (Ed.), Synthese, 1981 (available electronically from the SU library)

D. Føllesdal and R. Hilpinen. “Deontic Logic: An Introduction.” In: Deontic Logic: Introductory And Systematic Readings, R. Hilpinen (Ed), Reidel, Dordrecht, 1971, pp 1–35. (available electronically from the SU library)

Lennart Åqvist, “Deontic Logic.” In Gabbay and Guenthner, 2nd ed. vol. 8(2002), pp147–264. (First edition 1984) (also available electronically from the SU library)

Lennart Åqvist, Combinations of tense and deontic modality: On the Rt approach to temporal logic with historical necessity and conditional obligation, Journal of Applied Logic, vol. 3 (2005), pp.421–460

J. van Benthem, Minimal deontic logics, Bulletin of the Section of Logic 8 (1), pp.36-41 (1979)

J. Hansen, G. Pigozzi, and L. van der Torre, Ten Philosophical Problems in Deontic Logic, Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings 07122 on Normative Multi-agent Systems, 2007.

 

Posted on Mondo

Posted on Mondo

Submission of Assignment 2. Deadline: 1pm on May 12 (closed)

 

20 /11

16/05

Introduction to first-order modal logics. Formal semantics and philosophical discussion. Interactions between modality and quantification. Logics with constant and variable domains.

Melvin Fitting and Richard L. Mendelsohn, First-order modal logic, Kluwer, Synthese Library, 1998, Chapter 4, (available electronically from the SU library)

Sten Lindström & Krister Segerberg, Modal Logic and Philosophy, chapter in: P. Blackburn & J. van Benthem (eds.), Handbook of Modal Logic. Elsevier (2007), Section 1: Alletic modal logic. (available electronically from the SU library)

James Garson, Modal Logic, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Torben Braüner and Silvio Ghilardi, First-order modal logic, Chapter 9 in: Handbook of Modal Logic, Elsevier, 2007, pp. 549-620(available electronically from the SU library)

Ted Sider, Logic for Philosophy, OUP, 2010, Chapter 9 (available from the SU library)

Posted on Mondo

Posted on Mondo

Assignment 3 posted on Mondo

21 /12

23/05

Introduction to temporal-epistemic logics.

First-order temporal and epistemic logics: some technical and philosophical remarks.

George Hughes and Max Cresswell, A new introduction to modal logic, Routledge, 1996. Ch 13, pp 235-255; Ch 15, pp 274-287. (available electronically from the SU library)

Bryan Renne, Joshua Sack, Audrey Yap, Logics of temporal-epistemic actions, Synthese, March 2016, Volume 193, Issue 3, pp 813–849

Torben Braüner and Silvio Ghilardi, First-order modal logic, Chapter 9 in: Handbook of Modal Logic, Elsevier, 2007, pp. 549-620 (available electronically from the SU library)

Ted Sider, Logic for Philosophy, OUP, 2010, Chapter 9 (available from the SU library)

Posted on Mondo
Posted on Mondo
 
       
    Submission of Assignment 3: 10am on June 5

Schedule time-table

Departmental course page

Course description

Consulting time: by appointment

Lecture notes, handouts, and other reading material

Lecture notes, slides and other reading material will be provided on Mondo or linked to this page on an ongoing basis.

Class sessions:

Usually: Tuesdays 13:00-16.00 (incl. breaks and discussion time), in Södra huset, room D734. See schedule for details.

 

Additional readings:

General on philosophical logic

 

 

On generic modal logics:

 

On epistemic logics, dynamic epistemic logics, logics of belief and belief revision:

On temporal logics:

 

On logics for ability, actions, agency and STIT:

On deontic logics:

 

On first-order modal ogics:

Exercises

List of exercises will be provided on a weekly basis, usually taken from the lecture notes and handouts. Students are advised to do as many exercises on each topic as they need to master it. Solutions or hints to some selected exercises will be provided on Mondo and will be discussed in the discussion time after the lectures.

Assignments and final grade

There will be 3 mandatory written assignments during the course, each consisting of a set of exercises. The assignments will be provided about 2 weeks before the submission deadline. Students must do these exercises individually and prepare written reports with their solutions.

The assignments will be checked and corrected by the lecturer, returned to the students for feedback, and then returned back to the lecturer. The average of the assignments grades will form the final grade.

Queries

If you have any queries on the information above, talk to me or send me an email.